1.1 Identify why people communicate
Since communication can be defined as the process by which information is exchanged between people through a common system of signs, words or behavior, it can be said that people communicate for many reasons that are best known to them. Some of these reasons can be to pass and receive information, to know what to tell our friends about what we want and need or what we are thinking, to make a point, to entertain, to teach, to let others know our feelings and opinions, to help people understand us and help us to understand them, to give and receive instructions, to work better when placed in a team, to learn, build relationships with other people, among others. Communication can take place between adults or children and it may be formal like in a courtroom or informal like friends chatting.
1.2 Explain how effective communication affects all aspects of own work
It is important to communicate effectively because it keeps us and others well aware of what is going on around us. Effective communication includes both verbal and non-verbal communication. To communicate effectively, we need to be clear about what we are talking about ands also be certain that those we are talking to understand what we are saying. This is known as verbal communication. It is also important because it helps in the passing of accurate and clear information. It reduces the possibility of making mistakes and makes way for proper service delivery, helps one work well in team settings, improve our relationship with others, i.e. colleagues at work, parents and children. The way we communicate depends on the person with whom we are communicating with and the reason for the communication.
1.3 Explain why it is important to observe an individual’s reactions when communicating with them.
It is important because for effective communication to take place, the receiver should understand the message properly. It is when we observe the person’s reactions that we will know whether they understand us or not. This is necessary because the person may not say whether they understand or not and even if they say that they have understood, their reactions or body language may show that hey have not really understood. Observation also helps us to know whether we have the attention of the person we are speaking to or not. Their body language, for example, eye contact, helps us know if we have the person’s attention or if the person’s attention is somewhere else. If the person makes eye contact with us, this means we have the person’s full attention, but if the person’s eyes are roaming or are looking elsewhere, that means the person is not paying attention to what we are saying. Also, all communication has an effect on people. It is only when we observe the receiver of the message that we can have an idea of what he or she is feeling such as, anger fear, confusion etc. This shows that observation assists effective communication.
2.1 Find out an individual’s communication and language needs, wishes and preferences
Finding out an individual’s communication and language needs, wishes and preferences is important because not everyone communicates the same way. We need to consider the communication needs of the receiver which depends on some factors like language, physical ability, hearing loss or visual impairment, background, learning ability, etc. The simplest, easiest and best way to find out about an individual’s communication needs will be to just ask the person concerned. If this is not possible to do, another way to is to observe the person or to talk to the people who know the person. They will know more about the communication needs of the person and have ways of communicating with and understanding the person. The next step is to have the skills that will help effective communication with the person. If one doesn’t have all the needed skills, it will be best to look for support where necessary. For example, the best way to communicate with a person with hearing loss will be through sign language but if we don’t know much about sign language, it will be better to get someone who knows it who will help us communicate our thoughts to the impaired person.
2.2 Demonstrate communication methods that meet an individual’s, communication needs, wishes and preferences.
To communicate when there are language differences, we will need the help of a professional. It is better to use a professional interpreter instead of friends or family members because the friend or family member’s ability may not be of the same standard as that of the professional interpreter and also because the receiver may not want any family member or friend to be involved. If this is not possible, we may need to learn the person’s language. We can also use flashcards, signs or signals to communicate. Nonverbal communication too helps. Everybody understands a smile, friendly face and a welcoming body posture.
To communicate with someone with illness like stroke, we need to use simple, short sentences while talking slowly and waiting patiently for the person to process what we have said respond. We can also use gestures to help the person to understand better what we are saying.
For communication with someone with learning disability, we need to first find out the level of disability of the person so that we can know how simple and frequent we need to explain and the sort of communication that they will easily understand.
2.3 Show how and when to seek advice about communication.
It is better to ask for advice and support when we are not sure of what to do in a particular situation or when the situation is hard to understand. When facing a situation that we don’t understand and we are confused as to what to do, it will be better to ask someone who will be in the best position to know how to handle the situation for advice and support like from the person or from their family and friends. It will not be wise to guess what to do or try to sort out the situation on our own. If possible, it will be better to get professional advice.
3.1 Identify barriers to effective communication.
A barrier to communication are those things that make it difficult for the receiver to understand what we are saying. There are many barriers that prevent effective communication. Until we know how to remove communication barriers, we will not be able to communicate effectively. A barrier to effective communication is the use of acronyms, professional terms or initials of words. If we use this to communicate with others who are not familiar with these form of words, it is not likely they understand what we are trying to say. It will be better to speak in simple, easy to understand words so that the receiver can understand. Also, the age of the receiver should be considered. When talking to a child, we should not use compound words but should use words that the child will be easily understand. We should not have the thought that those we are communicating with can hear or understand us. Language, physical disability are examples of barriers to effective communication.
3.2 Demonstrate ways to reduce barriers to effective communication
For a person to be able to communicate well and to the best of their ability, the person has to feel as relaxed and comfortable as much as possible. There are some encouraging actions that can make a person feel comfortable and relaxed enough to communicate well. Some of these actions are the use of gestures and pictures, being warm and encouraging in our words and smiling while we speak with them, listening attentively, making sure one responds at the right time which shows we are following what the person is saying, making eye contact, using simple words, being patient while the person speaks, having a friendly facial expression, removing as much distractions as possible, repeating information when necessary, asking appropriate questions, keeping the conversation simple and short, touching the person to show concern and sympathy where necessary and so on.
3.3 Demonstrate ways to check that communication has been understood.
The simplest way to know if communication has been understood will be to ask the person to repeat some of the things said or by asking questions about what was talked about. Listening attentively is also another way to check if communication has been understood. There are ways to show one is listening. An example is nodding while the person speaks. Effective communication occurs when a person knows that the receiver is going along with him or her as he or she speaks. Body language also says a lot about whether communication has been understood or not. When we sit forward as the person speaks, make eye contact, our facial expression, asking the right questions are all signs that show that communication is understood but roaming eyes, unfriendly facial expression, interrupting mean that communication is not understood.
3.4 Identify sources of information and support or services to enable more effective communication
Sometimes one would need the advice of a specialist when a person’s communication needs are too complex for us to deal with alone. For example, a person may have an illness that affects their ability to make sounds in the normal way, for such a situation, one will need the help of a speech and language therapist who is an expert and will be able to give advice on any kind of specialized communication needs. When there is a language barrier, it will be better to make use of the help of a professional interpreter. Other sources of information are the following: the police, social services, the embassy or consulate of the person’s country, Specialist organizations that exist for most conditions can give expert advice on communication with people that have specific issues related to their conditions like the Stroke Association, the Alzheimer’s Society, National Registers of Communication Professionals working with Deaf and Deafblind People (NRCPD), among others.
4.1 Explain the term ‘’Confidentiality’’
Confidentiality can be defined as the means of not sharing information about individuals to other people without them knowing and making sure that written and electronic information about that person that was shared cannot be accessed or read by people who have no right to see it. It is important to keep matters that are confidential private because when others are given access to a confidential information it will make the person lose trust in the other person who didn’t keep the matter confidential, it may also put the person’s safety at risk or the person may not be able to keep their self-esteem if the private matters are made public. There are professional requirements that are made by regulators that make it the duty of professionals like doctors and lawyers, to keep information confidential.
4.2 Demonstrate confidentiality in day to day communication in agreed ways of working.
It is required that all the information that a person gives or that is given on their behalf cannot be shown or told to anyone without the person approving it first. But in some special cases, there might occur a reason to give out the information. However, the person who owns the information will be informed before it is given out. In such situation though, the only information given out is strictly the information required for the purpose it is passed on. For example, although medical information is strictly confidential, it may be passed from a hospital to a residential home or to a private agency in order to make sure that the person gets the best care available. But only the limited information that is needed in the residential home or the private agency will be passed on to them and not all the person’s medical information and history. The common time that people give out confidential information is when chatting to friends and family members while trying to let out the stress of the day. No matter how tempting it is, one should make sure one doesn’t give out confidential information.
4.3. Describe situations where information normally considered to be confidential might need to be passed on.
There are some reasons why confidential information might need to be given out without the approval of the person who it concerns and which should be given out at the earliest possible time. Examples of this kind of situations are when health of the community is at .For example, if a person has an infectious illness and insists on dining in a restaurant where many will be infected, it will be wise to give out confidential information. Also, if a serious crime has been committed, confidential information can be given but only to a high ranking officer. It may be helpful to give information that is confidential in order to save the person. For example, if a child is being abused, it will be best to give out such information to the necessary authorities. Or if the person wants to harm themselves, confidential information should be given to the authorities.
4.4 Explain how and when to seek advice about confidentiality
When one is not sure about how or if to maintain confidentiality, then it will be best to ask for advice on what to do. Every organization has policies on information sharing and confidentiality so in such a situation, one can get advice to make sure that one is working alongside policy guidelines. It is also good to seek for advice when the person involved is in danger, for example if the person threatens to commit suicide or threatens to kill someone or is being physically abused. Another instance when one should seek advice when it comes to confidential matters is when one is asked to reveal confidential matters by the authorities. If it is a must that confidential matters must be revealed, the identity of the person must be kept anonymous.